Review sheet 39 chemical and physical processes of digestion

For example, the sight, smell, and taste of food initiate long reflexes that begin with a sensory neuron delivering a signal to the medulla oblongata.

name the end products of digestion for the following types of foods

Extrinsic nerve plexuses orchestrate long reflexes, which involve the central and autonomic nervous systems and work in response to stimuli from outside the digestive system.

The most common dietary lipids are triglycerides, which are made up of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acid chains.

Digestive system processes

Neural Controls The walls of the alimentary canal contain a variety of sensors that help regulate digestive functions. This results in molecules small enough to enter the bloodstream Figure 4. The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine Figure 3. Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. The fatty acids include both short-chain less than 10 to 12 carbons and long-chain fatty acids. Other GI hormones are produced and act upon the gut and its accessory organs. The first of these processes, ingestion, refers to the entry of food into the alimentary canal through the mouth. In contrast, food that distends the stomach initiates short reflexes that cause cells in the stomach wall to increase their secretion of digestive juices. The large food molecules that must be broken down into subunits are summarized Table 9 Absorbable Food Substances Table 9 Source. Neurosensory feedback is also dampened, slowing the transmission of messages that stimulate the release of enzymes and hormones. These GI hormones are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, called endocrinocytes, located in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small intestine. Digestion includes both mechanical and chemical processes. Problems in the small intestine may include duodenal ulcers, maldigestion, and malabsorption. This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract. Digestion of Protein.

The fatty acids include both short-chain less than 10 to 12 carbons and long-chain fatty acids. Digestion of Protein Flow Chart. Insufficient lactase can lead to lactose intolerance. In defecation, the final step in digestion, undigested materials are removed from the body as feces.

Interactive Link Questions Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract.

Chemical and physical processes of digestion lab

Proteins are successively broken down into their amino acid components. These processes are regulated by neural and hormonal mechanisms. Digestive Processes. Other GI hormones are produced and act upon the gut and its accessory organs. These regulatory mechanisms, which stimulate digestive activity through mechanical and chemical activity, are controlled both extrinsically and intrinsically. The details of these processes will be discussed later. The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine Figure 3. Digestion of Protein Flow Chart. Three brush border enzymes hydrolyze sucrose, lactose, and maltose into monosaccharides. Instead, it makes the food smaller to increase both surface area and mobility. Conditions that affect the function of accessory organs—and their abilities to deliver pancreatic enzymes and bile to the small intestine—include jaundice, acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and gallstones.

Digestion of Protein. Hormones produced by the duodenum include secretin, which stimulates a watery secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas; cholecystokinin CCKwhich stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver and release of bile from the gallbladder; and gastric inhibitory peptide, which inhibits gastric secretion and slows gastric emptying and motility.

Neurosensory feedback is also dampened, slowing the transmission of messages that stimulate the release of enzymes and hormones.

In some cases, a single organ is in charge of a digestive process.

Review sheet 39 chemical and physical processes of digestion

Chapter Review The digestive system ingests and digests food, absorbs released nutrients, and excretes food components that are indigestible. Carbohydrates are broken down into their monomers in a series of steps. Figure 1. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body. Regulatory Mechanisms Neural and endocrine regulatory mechanisms work to maintain the optimal conditions in the lumen needed for digestion and absorption. Carbohydrate Digestion Flow Chart. Chemical digestion in the small intestine is continued by pancreatic enzymes, including chymotrypsin and trypsin, each of which act on specific bonds in amino acid sequences.

It includes mastication, or chewing, as well as tongue movements that help break food into smaller bits and mix food with saliva. Swallowing can be difficult, and ingested food moves slowly through the alimentary canal because of reduced strength and tone of muscular tissue.

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Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look