Master thesis template epbfi email
Figure 4. Oliveira, D.
Page Numbering Start the Appendix or Appendices with the next consecutive page number. Most probably it would be necessary to include a new parameter, the friction of the sand grains, for example, which its influence is still not yet clearly understood in the clogging potential. It is also a difficult task, although not impossible, to combine all these variables into a holistic model and achieve a final solution. After several tests, especially for low plasticity samples with a relevant sand contribution, most of the soil stuck in the beater would be easily removed with any vibration or impact of the mixing tool. Public Roads, 13, pp. Initially, the machine used had a liter capacity and, later, it was changed to a smaller machine with 5-liter capacity Zumsteg, Puzrin and Anagnostou , illustrated here in Figure 1. Figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis. Figure 4. However, too many discrepancies can be detected and, certainly, the lack of a solid procedure for dropping the beater could be influencing the results. Ideally, this counter balance kinetic energy should be calibrated with a high amount of tunnel data, and, undoubtedly, that could increase the refinement of this calibration. This graph considers the plastic and liquid limit of the soil, the changes in the water content and the consistency index Ic , correlating that with distinct ranges of clogging potential, from absent lumps or fines dispersing to strong clogging. Feinendegen, M. Main testing points for the initial calibration of A. Figure Captions If space permits, the caption should appear on the same page as the figure.
These samples had different proportions of clay and sand, for two different clay minerals; bentonite cited here as B and kaolinite cited as K. It occurs when clay particles adhere to metal surfaces of excavation tools because of the attractive forces of the clay particles and the presence of water between the clay-metal surface.
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Figure 2. However, the page number must be placed on the page as though the page was in portrait format. Two different approaches are available in terms of estimating the clogging potential. Results from preliminary testing phase plotted in the clogging potential universal graph modified from Hollman and Thewes Tables should be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis. It was considered to use, as testing points, the consistency index values just above and below the clogging potential boundaries, as defined by the graph from Hollman and Thewes , indicated here in the Figure 6. Hollmann, F. Figure Captions If space permits, the caption should appear on the same page as the figure. Figure 8. Geotechnik 27, pp.
Public Roads, Vol. Diederichs3 and L. Whatever format is chosen, it must be followed consistently throughout the thesis.
On the top graph the samples have not received any dynamic jolting, and, on the bottom are plotted the results after three drops of the beater, from the same height.
Appendices All material included in the appendices must meet minimum font and margin requirements. Thewes2, M.
It needs to appear in the same location and have the same text direction as the other portrait pages. After an extended test campaign with pure clays and mixed clay sand soils, it was clear that only the Hobart methodology was not enough to provide reliable information about the real tendency of a certain soil to clog in a tunnel drive.
It must be considered that there is significant kinetic energy at the tool-soil interface in front of the cutterhead and even inside the excavation chamber, so the correlation between real clogging and an index based on the B-flat beater with soil stuck on it without the addition of kinetic energy, should not really be expected.
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