The first is that there was a single state encompassing all the communities of the civilization, given the similarity in artifacts, the evidence of planned settlements, the standardized ratio of brick size, and the apparent establishment of settlements near sources of raw material.
Long carnelian beads found at the Mesopotamian capital city of Ur were made either by craftsmen in the Indus region or by others living in Mesopotamia using Indus raw materials and technology.
Wheeler, who was Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from toposited that many unburied corpses found in the top levels of the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site were victims of war. Fragment of Large Deep Vessel, circa B.
The advanced drainage system and baths of the great cities were built over or blocked. In anthropology a clear connection has been made between the growth of the state and the emergence of urban centres.
Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Byover 1, cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated. Houses had become increasingly shoddy in construction and showed signs of overcrowding. The settlement was laid out along gridded streets tracing the cardinal directions and wheeled carts pulled by bulls for transporting heavy commodities into Harappa.
One seal from Mohenjo-daro shows a half-human, half-buffalo monster attacking a tiger. The latter cannot develop without the former. The final blow seems to have been sudden, but the city was already dying.