An overview of fascism in germany and italy
For Further Reading Eatwell, Roger. In the early s, the Ministry of Home Affairs began arresting left-wing political dissidents, generally to exact a confession and renouncement of anti-state leanings.
About two thousand men marched to the center of Munich where they confronted the police, resulting in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. Italy, however, was a strongly Catholic country.
An overview of fascism in germany and italy
This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes The Rise of Fascism in Italy The first meeting of the Fasci of Revolutionary Action was held on January 24, , led by Benito Mussolini. On January 3, , Mussolini addressed the Fascist-dominated Italian parliament and declared that he was personally responsible for what happened, but insisted that he had done nothing wrong. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. Kita also envisioned strict limits to private ownership of property and land reform to improve the lot of tenant farmers. In , militant strike activity by industrial workers reached its peak in Italy. In practice, however, the employers usually benefited more than the workers did. Francisco Franco: A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from until his death. Gentile, as minister of education, continued the teaching of Catholic doctrine in the elementary schools. All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were forbidden entirely, often in an erratic manner. Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky, cutting off almost all international trade.
Aroundthe fascists began to align themselves with mainstream conservatives, increasing membership exponentially. After the war had ended, Italy was rewarded with these territories under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Therefore, individuals must submit to the fascist state in order to be truly free. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation, because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.
Fascism and religion
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and they regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and respond effectively to economic difficulties. This was a bundle of rods tied around an ax, which represented the power of Rome. Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and avoid succumbing to decay. Franco gained military support from various regimes and groups, especially Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as the Soviet Union, Mexico, and the International Brigades. Initially, little drastic change in government policy occurred and repressive police actions were limited. Fascist movements grew stronger elsewhere in Europe. Its intellectual school considered the individual only one part of the larger collectivity, which should not be viewed as an atomized numerical sum of individuals. He proclaimed himself dictator of Italy, assuming full responsibility over the government and announcing the dismissal of parliament. Over 30, such arrests were made between and Mussolini in Power Upon becoming Prime Minister of Italy, Mussolini had to form a coalition government, because the Fascists did not have control over the Italian parliament. Reality, myth, or hoax of theorists? It also approves all candidates running for parliament. Japan had no strong allies and its actions had been internationally condemned, while internally popular nationalism was booming. The nationalism espoused by these groups contrasted the internationalist focus of communism; there was little coordination between fascist movements prior to the Second World War however there was an attempt at unifying European fascists. In Italy and Germany a movement came to power that sought to create national unity through the repression of national enemies and the incorporation of all classes and both genders into a permanently mobilized nation.
Women could not become judges, testify in trial, or become university professors.
based on 47 review